Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Walmart Undergoing Change - Case Study Example It is normal that this change will extraordinarily improve the exhibition and the upper hand of the organization in the business condition. The requirements of representatives are frequently met by the initiative of an organization or association. The necessities of workers inside Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s distinctive useful territories will in this manner be met under a bound together group of pioneers. There are different requirements among representatives, for example, viable pay, benefits, great workplace and reasonable working hours. These requirements would be influenced by the new initiative structure. For instance the necessities of representatives inside the Logistics work are probably going to be unique in relation to those inside the Real Estate work. All together for these change to be compelling, it is thusly important for the organization initiative to adequately speak with workers and comprehend their necessities so a successful arrangement for meeting them would be executed (Vakola and Nikolaou, 2009). Since the hierarchical change at Wal-Mart is planned for improving the administration conveyance to the clients, it is apparent that the organization is probably going to enlist new workers to guarantee that this goal is accomplished successfully. The administration of authoritative change incorporates meeting the preparation needs of new representatives (Tsoukas and Chia, 2008). This implies the new initiative group inside Wal-Mart will be answerable for building up a preparation program in which the aptitudes and information on new workers hands on will be adequately achieved. In the determination of new workers, the organization must stick to the enlistment arrangements inside its strategy note pad. This implies the necessary degree of instruction, experience, aptitudes or information for the different practical zones of the organization must be displayed by the new representatives. The enlistment procedure should likewise guarantee that the new representatives will increase the value of the organization through advancing its efficiency and making it progressively serious in its market. Since the frameworks and
Posted by d at 4:21 AM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligence Essay Numerous years prior it was very basic to name somebody with a high IQ as a Ã¢â¬Å"geniusÃ¢â¬ or as being more keen than others. Albert Einstein is one of those men who were marked as a virtuoso due to all that he had achieved at such a youthful age. Obviously, EinsteinÃ¢â¬â¢s smarts were incredibly noteworthy, yet records show that he was not the best understudy. Despite the fact that Einstein scored amazingly well in territories like Math and Physics, it has been noticed that in regions like semantics, he didn't exceed expectations (Albert Einstein, 2005). Does this make Einstein, any to a lesser degree a virtuoso? As indicated by Howard GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis of various insights, a personÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fundamentally estimated in state administered testing or school grades. Gardner recognizes that each personÃ¢â¬â¢s learning style is extraordinary, so the insight could exceed expectations in any of the eight styles: Linguistic, Musical, Logical, Naturalistic, Visual, Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, and Intrapersonal (Kowalski Westen, 2011). This implies somebody like Ludwig van Beethoven who might not have been as academic as Albert Einstein, can even now be viewed as a virtuoso because of his melodic insight. The eight unique insights portrayed by Gardner are what he accepted to be the eight qualities in which an individual can learn. Gardner accepted that since everybody can learn in one of these eight unique styles, at that point they could exceed expectations in any of the individual fields. An individual who has a phonetic knowledge is depicted as somebody who uses words and correspondence viably. An individual with semantic knowledge would have brilliant sound-related abilities, and makes an interpretation of everything into words or discourse. Then again, somebody who has the learning style of spatial knowledge would be generally alright with designs, physical symbolism, and visuals (Campbell, 1992). Be that as it may, somebody with an inclination to the sensation style of learning would be generally OK with being hands on. They learn by doing, contacting, and anything that includes physical action, along these lines their insight may glance progressively like carrying on, or pretending. Another learning style of different insights portrayed by Gardner is naturalistic. Somebody who has a naturalistic style of learning is more on top of their environmental factors, and center a great deal with what nature is giving them. The naturalistic knowledge was not added to the various insights until some other time. GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis was acquainted with naturalistic in light of the nature versus sustain banter, in which an individual gains from their environmental factors, or condition in which they are in (Sulaiman, Hassan, Yi, 2011). One of the greater learning styles in GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis is that of intrapersonal and relational. Intrapersonal is that wherein an individual gains from themselves. Somebody who minds their own business and doesn't get socially included (Campbell, 1992). On the t otal diverse range, is the relational learning style. Like a people person, relational alludes to somebody who cooperates with other people, appreciates working in groups, main focus, and simply like they look for consideration of others, others look for their consideration too. I for one relate to the relational school of learning the best out of the entirety of the insights in GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis. I for the most part function admirably when joined by others. I am a cooperative person, and group pioneer. Others for the most part try to me for guidance, and I will in general convey my best outcomes, when working with others. This is the insight that is generally credited with the slang term of Ã¢â¬Å"street smartsÃ¢â¬ (Sulaiman, Hassan, Yi, 2011). Having had sports for a major impact of my life, I will in general convey my musings as a group. I convey the group and try to comprehend everybody in the group. I generally consider others first, and having that one on one connection is generally essential to me. All through my voc ation, I have ended up to be in influential positions much of the time, in light of the fact that numerous other people who are not reinforce by the relational knowledge feel as though I can lead better because of the accentuation I put on collaboration, and my satisfactory degree of correspondence with the whole group. In the work place I have discovered this very supportive, and it has helped me gotten extremely fruitful. The two different insights laid out in GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis are that of melodic and legitimate, or scientific. Melodic knowledge is alluded to an individual when they can relate everything to a cadence, or arrangement. Somebody who has melodic insight is likewise mindful of the sounds and music space in their environmental factors. Somebody with melodic insight would know about dichotic tuning in, and comprehend the significance of clamor (Kowalski Westen, 2011). Music is an exceptionally enormous piece of my life, what I do, and how I do it. I can recall growing up and not having the option to rest until music was playing out of sight. I wind up being practically sensitive to very. I will in general accomplish my best work when it is possible that I have music playing out of sight, or if the TV is on. While in school, I typically got myself while examining, to be singing. I will in general partner rhyme and musicality to a ton of the new things that I learn. As indicated by G ardner, somebody who has a melodic insight is delicate to sound, and could hear music, or discover the mood to anything, even before the words are verbally expressed (Campbell, 1992). The last knowledge in GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis is legitimate insight, or most usually known as numerical insight (Sulaiman, Hassan, Yi, 2011). Somebody who possesses the consistent insight are said to think uniquely. They for the most part need to learn and frame ideas before they can manage subtleties. They compute results, appreciate working the brain in the way that truly utilizes the prefrontal vortex more than some other insight. Somebody with legitimate reasoning is accepted to be somebody who takes as much time as is needed to break down every single imaginable condition, and work the issue for an answer. This kind of individual preferences riddles and word games to invigorate the mind. I distinguish myself just like a coherent mastermind because of the way that one of my qualities is to be expository. Albert Einstein was accepted to have a place in this knowledge field, because of his work in science and material science. I discover my knowledge to not be at the degree of Einstein using any and all means, however I do identify with his prior work being capable in the math field over the semantic (Albert Einstein, 20 05). Since English isn't my first language, experiencing childhood in the United States, going to class was hard for me, however numbers turned into my place of refuge. Having learned numbers at an extremely youthful age (as indicated by my educators, I realized how to include and deduct when I was 3) I get myself most pulled in to callings in which investigative reasoning is required. Having filled in as a District Investigator, it was expected of me to take a gander at administrative work and distinguish the misrepresentation, or recognize the burglary by finding the examples, or the number grouping. A major an aspect of my responsibilities was to break down exchanges, and contrast them with video pictures. Things are in every case better disclosed to me whenever separated into designs. In spite of the fact that Gardner partitioned the insights into eight separate classes, his hypothesis accepted that an individual doesn't simply command one knowledge, but instead takes a piece from the entirety of the insights all in all. Much the same as it could be obviously distinguished that Albert Einstein that ruled the legitimate knowledge, his work shows that he may have had the intrapersonal insight just as the spatial insight (Campbell, 1992). Gardner accepted that the knowledge of somebody couldn't really be estimated, by testing, however for the most part by lessons, and learning styles. I feel as though I most relate to melodic insight, consistent knowledge, and relational knowledge. My profession so far would recommend that these fields have brought me much achievement, yet in my ongoing vocation change from Criminal Justice to Psychology, I will in all probability figure out how to area in the phonetic and spatial insight.
Posted by d at 6:56 AM
Friday, August 14, 2020
Have you seen our new look Weâre delighted to share the new logo that youâll begin seeing across Khan Academyâs offerings in the coming days:Our logo is new, but it reflects Khan Academyâs core values, which havenât changed over time. Its shape and bright color reflect the joy of learning and the transformational power of education. The hexagon is a fundamental building block in math, nature, and art. And, weâve retained the leaf symbol from our previous logoâ"a classic metaphor for personal growth, which we care deeply about.Our new logo is a celebration of the passion for learning that we value as an organization and a community. Weâd love to hear what you think in comments. If you plan to use the new logo in your classroom, wed love to hear how.You might be wondering why we updated our logo. Itâs pretty simple: Khan Academy is always growing and improving, and we need a logo that keeps up. Weâve evolved from a single website for desktops to multiple apps available across many devices. In our early days, we were known for math videos, but today we offer personalized learning across many subjects and every grade. Just this week we launched a new mastery learning system and new lessons for back to school! Our new logo is flexible enough to work in a variety of settings. We think it looks great on devices, dashboards, app stores, laptops, and desktops. And, we love using it across our many platforms. As youâre using Khan Academy to learn or to teach, we hope youâll enjoy seeing our new logo out of the corner of your eye. Thanks for being part of a terrific community that celebrates learning and growth. Onward!
Posted by d at 3:10 AM
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Introduction: Today there are many injustices in this world, however some are overlooked in todays society. One of these acts is the Death Penalty. The Death Penalty, or Capital punishment has been around for centuries first appearing in Hamarabis code. In modern society the death penalty is often overlooked because normally it is a criminal receiving the punishment and not your everyday good citizen. Which is where the main argument lies for most people. The Death Penalty can affect all people, directly or indirectly, yet most people dont see it this way. From the stoning in the late B.C. era to the lethal injection, many modern governments, including the united States. have sentenced many to death for years, without realizing theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Yet, the abolitionists failed to gain a majority of the states even in modern times. Due to many of the states having the death penalty the question lies why? Why would so many states have the death penalty when some find it completely u necessary, and its even cheaper to imprison people for life. (To Execute or Not: A Question of Cost?Ã¢â¬ ) The problem for most states is overcrowding in the prison system, which has gotten increasingly bigger and more of a problem each year. As it turns out, money is not the problem at all, in fact its ten times cheaper to imprison someone then to kill them. Death by execution is excessively expensive, and most who support it believe it is cheaper than imprisonment. (The Gainesville Sun, on Apr. 18, 2012). The death penalty though has been revolutionized since its beginings, which then draws more to believe it is the better solution, or so one would think. In 1790, Thomas Bird became the first person to be executed under the United States Constitution, he was executed by hanging. Since that time there have been many variations of carrying out the punishment such as firing squad, electric chair, lethal gas, and finally lethal injection the most used today. In reality, today, becau se the public has been more educated by sources such as the media which instead brings drawbacks to methods like the lethal injection. In a way many states have tried to find a more humane way of killing someone as punishment, which is virtuallyShow MoreRelatedPunishing Criminals by Death Will Deter Future Crimes...or Not?1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOutline The paper introduces the assumptions that people have that punishing criminals by death will deter future crimes. The paragraph further explains how human behavior is related to acts of crime. The essay gives an example of Canada. How crime was not deterred by the imposition of death penalty as a tool used by the system of justice. The essay states some of the research that has been conducted with the intention of proving that capital punishment can deter crimes. This paper points out theRead MoreMy Study On The Death Penalty Essay880 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescan say that my greatest weakness always have been writing essays. When I was reading the Syllabus I was overwhelmed with the amount of work the class had, and a little scared. Every week discussion, assignments, and 4 essays had to be completed during the semester. I am going to write on my reflection what were weak and my area of strengths. First, I would like to say what my areas of strength writing an essay are. The particular essay I have enjoyed writing was project 4. I found my strength withinRead MoreOutline of the Basic Principles of Sentencing Essay1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOutline of the Basic Principles of Sentencing Legal system is one of the most important parts of the Government, which directly affects the society and people in the society; as a result, researchers and criticisers have always inspected it. This essay will outline the basic principles of sentencing in United Kingdom. There are five general aims or functions or justifications of punishment in the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s legal system, which are: 1. RETRIBUTION Retribution restsRead MoreCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty950 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬ ¢ Introduction (107 words) Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, has long been abolished in Australia since 1967. Although our country does not sentence capital punishment, other countries do, and there is a worldwide argument on the whole topic. Ã¢â¬Å"Capital punishment is the practice of executing someone as punishment for a specific crime after a proper legal trial.Ã¢â¬ (BBC - Ethics: Capital punishment, 2014) Capital punishment is generally used in situations where the accused has committedRead MoreSummary Of Raymond Bonners Anatomy Of Injustice1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages For my second essay, I chose to critique Raymond BonnerÃ¢â¬â¢s Anatomy of Injustice. It was published in 2012 in the United States by Alfred A. Knopf, a division of Random House Inc. I thoroughly enjoyed this book. It goes into the profound problems with the Death Penalty in criminal justice. Such as incompetent lawyers, racial profiling, and wrongful convictions. In particular, the Case of Edward Lee Elmore. In January 1982, a white South Carolina widow named Dorothy Edwards was found deadRead MoreArgumentative: Bibliography and Additional Information Essay1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis material set-off in this fashion in the handout identifies the revision notation for these matters. Guidelines for the Argumentative/Persuasive Essay Citing Sources You are not to employ footnotes or endnotes in your essay. Rather, when you employ anothers ideas or quote from a source in your essay, please employ the Modern Language Association, MLA, format for in-text citations; the format is set forth in Keys, p. 144 et seq. Quoting, Citing, and Referencing Source Material Read MoreWhat Makes A Successful Argument?927 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesargument? An argumentative essay is similar to any other essay. The writing process may vary, but only slightly to meet the demands of an argument. When writing a convincing argumentative essay, one must first choose a topic and then think about that chosen topic, draft a thesis statement, understand the intended audience, gather evidence, refute opposing arguments, revise the thesis statement, establish credibility, draft the essay, revise the essay, and finally polish the essay. By implementing theseRead MoreDeath Penalty : Opposing The Penalty2142 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesName Tutor Course Class Paper outline Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction Ã¢â¬ ¢ Death penalty Ã¢â¬ ¢ Supporting death penalty Ã¢â¬ ¢ Opposing death penalty Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¢ Works cited Introduction The Death penalty practices are one of the controversial issues that have been over debate in the United States in the past years (Anckar 7). Individuals, groups, and scholars have raised a number of the political spectrum about the application of the death penalty as the best method of reduces and controlling criminal activities in theRead MoreThe Apostle Paul s Writing884 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBiblical Worldview Essay Introduction In the Apostle PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s writing in Romans, there is a biblical outlook of creation, he also states that humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s identity originated in God, and that God made man in His own image. Paul also expounds on manÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with God as well as with other creations, and on culture. Paul reveals GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love for mankind, manÃ¢â¬â¢s sinful condition, resulting in him rightly deserving the penalty of death, GodÃ¢â¬â¢s amazing grace and his plan of redemption. The Natural WorldRead MoreThe Freedom Of Opinion : The Truth, Or ( B ) False1878 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageserroneous counterpart. The freedom of opinion is critical because discussion gives individuals the ability to learn the truth from the host of opinions that arise from it (Mill, On Liberty, p. 31). Part III The principle that Mill defends in his essay is that the only circumstance that warrants interference by society, independently or as a whole, with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal liberty of action, is in the protection of others. He says that the sovereignty of individuals must not be violated unless their actions
Posted by d at 12:24 AM
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Whether you prefer to say Rome fell (in 410 when Rome was sacked, or in 476 when Odoacer deposed Romulus Augustulus), or simply morphed into the Byzantine Empire and medieval feudalism, economic policies of the emperors had a heavy impact on the lives of the citizens of Rome. Primary Source Bias Although they say history is written by the victors, sometimes its just written by the elites. This is the case with Tacitus (ca. 56 to 120) and Suetonius (ca.71 to 135), our primary literary sources on the first dozen emperors. Historian Cassius Dio, a contemporary of Emperor Commodus (Emperor from 180 to 192), was also from a senatorial family (which, then as now, meant elite). Commodus was one of the emperors who, although despised by the senatorial classes, was loved by the military and lower classes. The reason is mainly financial. Commodus taxed the senators and was generous with the others. Likewise, Nero (Emperor from 54 to 68) was popular with the lower classes, who held him in the kind of reverence reserved in modern times for Elvis PresleyÃ¢â¬âcomplete with Nero sightings after his suicide.Ã Inflation Nero and other emperors debased the currency in order to supply a demand for more coins. Debasing currency means that instead of a coin having its own intrinsic value, it was now the only representative of the silver or gold it had once contained. In 14 (the year of Emperor Augustus death), the supply of Roman gold and silver amounted to $1,700,000,000. By 800, this had dwindled to $165,000. Part of the problem was that the government would not permit the melting down of gold and silver for individuals. By the time of Claudius II Gothicus (Emperor from 268 to 270), the amount of silver in a supposedly solid silver denarius was only .02 percent. This was or led to severe inflation, depending on how you define inflation. Especially luxurious emperors like Commodus, who marked the end of the period of the five good emperors, depleted the imperial coffers. By the time of his assassination, the Empire had almost no money left. The 5 Good Emperors Leading to up Commodus 96 to 98: NervaÃ 98 to 117: TrajanÃ 117 to 138: HadrianÃ Ã 138 to 161: Antoninus PiusÃ 161 to 180: Marcus Aurelius177/180 to 192: Ã¢â¬â¹Commodus Land The Roman Empire acquired money by taxation or by finding new sources of wealth, like land. However, it had reached its furthest limits by the time of the second good emperor, Trajan, during the period of the high empire (96 to 180), so land acquisition was no longer an option. As Rome lost territory, it also lost its revenue base. Romes wealth was originally in the land, but this gave way to wealth through taxation. During the expansion of Rome around the Mediterranean, tax-farming went hand-in-hand with provincial government since the provinces were taxed even when Romans proper were not. Tax farmers would bid for the chance to tax the province and would pay in advance. If they failed, they lost, with no recourse to Rome, but they generally made a profit at the hand of the peasants. The diminishing importance of tax-farming at the end of the Principate was a sign of moral progress, but also meant the government couldnt tap private corporations in the event of an emergency. The means of acquiring crucial monetary funds included debasing the silver currency (seen as preferable to increasing the rate of taxation, and common), spending reserves (depleting the imperial coffers), increasing taxes (which was not done during the period of the high empire), and confiscating the estates of the wealthy elite. Taxation could be in kind, rather than coinage, which required local bureaucracies to make efficient use of perishables, and might be expected to produce reduced revenue for the seat of the Roman Empire. Emperors deliberately overtaxed the senatorial (or ruling) class in order to render it powerless. To do this, the emperors needed a powerful set of enforcersÃ¢â¬âthe imperial guard. Once the wealthy and powerful were no longer either rich or powerful, the poor had to pay the bills of the state. These bills included the payment of the imperial guard and the military troops at the empires borders. Feudalism Since the military and the imperial guard were absolutely essential, taxpayers had to be compelled to produce their pay. Workers had to be tied to their land. To escape the burden of tax, some small landowners sold themselves into slavery, since slaves didnt have to pay tax and freedom from taxes was more desirable than personal liberty. In the early days of the Roman Republic, debt-bondage (nexum) was acceptable. Nexum, Cornell argues, was better than being sold into foreign slavery or death. It is possible that centuries later, during the Empire, the same sentiments prevailed. Since the Empire wasnt making money from the slaves, Emperor Valens (ca. 368) made it illegal to sell oneself into slavery. Small landowners becoming feudal serfs is one of the several economic conditionsÃ responsible for the fall of Rome. Resources and Further Reading Barnish, S. J. B. Ã¢â¬Å"A Note on the Ã¢â¬ËCollatio Glebalis.Ã¢â¬ Ã Historia: Zeitschrift FÃ ¼r Alte Geschichte, vol. 38, no. 2, 1989, pp. 254-256.Ã JSTOR.Bartlett, Bruce. Ã¢â¬Å"How Excessive Government Killed Ancient Rome.Ã¢â¬ Cato Journal, vol. 14, no. 2, 1994, pp. 287-303.Cornell, Tim J. The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome From the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 B.C.). Routledge, 1995.Hammond, Mason. Ã¢â¬Å"Economic Stagnation in the Early Roman Empire.Ã¢â¬ The Journal of Economic History, vol. 6, no. S1, 1946, pp. 63-90.Heather, Peter. Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford University, 2014.Hopkins, Keith. Ã¢â¬Å"Taxes and Trade in the Roman Empire (200 B.C.-A.D. 400).Ã¢â¬ Journal of Roman Studies, vol. 70, Nov. 1980, pp. 101-125.MirkoviÃâ¡ Miroslava. The Later Roman Colonate and Freedom. American Philosophical Society, 1997.West, Louis C. Ã¢â¬Å"The Economic Collapse of the Roman Empire.Ã¢â¬ Ã The Classi cal Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, 1932, pp. 96-106.Ã JSTOR.Wickham, Chris. Ã¢â¬Å"The Other Transition: From the Ancient World to Feudalism.Ã¢â¬ Past Present, vol. 103, no. 1, 1 May 1984, pp. 3-36.Woolf, Greg. Ã¢â¬Å"Imperialism, Empire and the Integration of the Roman Economy.Ã¢â¬ World Archaeology, vol. 23, no. 3, 1992, pp. 283-293.
Posted by d at 12:16 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Autism is a brain disorder that is characterized by impaired social interaction and delayed communication skills. (Segal, 1996) Children with Autism show signs of delay in the first two years of life. Many times parents notice that their child demonstrates repetitive behaviors, or likes to spin objects, line things up or has an affinity for sameness. We will write a custom essay sample on Autism a Communication and Social Disorder or any similar topic only for you Order Now Some children with Autism have difficulty with transitions from one activity to another and are not able to regulate their senses. The range of these behaviors varies and that is why Autism is called a spectrum disorder. Many times, children will exhibit one or several of the symptoms. Children who exhibit fewer symptoms are diagnosed with PDD or Pervasive Developmental Delay, while children who have many of the symptoms are termed Autistic. There is recent research that shows that autism may be caused by genetics which are related to how the brain develops in early childhood. In the article, Autism and Brain development, Nancy Shute reports that some kind of mutations of genes that are important to language development may be the cause of autism in some children. Daniel Geschwind is researching the fact that these genes are sometimes turned on or off depending on the brains experiences. Ã¢â¬ (Shute). There is also a chance that Ã¢â¬Å"structural damage will be found, and this damage could be anything from microscopic to the grossly visible, from faults inside nerve cells to faulty development of whole cell systems. Ã¢â¬ (Frith) The causes of Autism are still being explored, but the more important thing is how people are diagnosed and treated for it. The symptoms of Autism are variable, and usually different in each child. Delay of language development, lack of social skills and lack of eye contact are a few of the symptoms. Because there is a range in the severity of the symptoms the diagnosis and treatment of autism varies and is an interesting process. The diagnosis of autism is based on a behavioral check list. Ã¢â¬Å"Because a diagnosis is a label or shorthand for treatment, it needs to correspond to the services to the child needs in the immediate future. Ã¢â¬ (Siegel) The parents, teachers, developmental pediatrician and sometimes other therapists all contribute to the assessment. The CHAT, Checklist of Autism in Toddlers is one way that pediatricians screen children under 2 years old for Autism. For children 4 years and older, a Social Communication Questionnaire is often used. These screenings rely on parent report and the observation of a diagnostic team. Then the child will be referred to a developmental pediatrician or a psychologist who is trained in diagnosis of Autism. There are several diagnostic tools, usually developmental checklists, and parent report along with a team of professionals who look at the behavioral symptoms that are characteristic of this disorder. The team of professionals who diagnosis autism typically include the parent, speech therapist, teacher, pediatrician and occupational therapist. The most widely used diagnostic tool for Autism is the ADOS, (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule). The North Bay Regional Center uses this to diagnose children with autism in this area. There are also other centers, the Mind Institute with is part of the University of Davis medical Center, where they focus only on diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorders. Bryna Siegel is a Psychologist who works at UCSF and has her own diagnostic clinic. Each case of autism has its own individual characteristics ranging between its cause, its diagnosis and the life long treatment. After being diagnosed, different therapy options are presented; PECS, play therapy and discrete trial are the three more commonly used treatments. What is best for children with Autism is an early diagnosis, and intensive speech and language therapy which includes the family. Dr. Stanly Greenspan has developed the Ã¢â¬Å"FloortimeÃ¢â¬ approach to helping families learn to interact with their children. Ã¢â¬Å"Autism and ASDÃ¢â¬â¢s involve difficulties in relating forming relationships, communicating, and thinking. (Greenspan) Play therapy also gives parents a chance to learn to communicate nonverbally with their autistic child. One of the most effective styles of play therapy is called floor time. Ã¢â¬Å"In playing with their child, parents can help her develop her social skills and also connect with their child through this nonverbal style of communication. The floor time/play therapy that a speech therapist directs is used to Ã¢â¬Å"harness the childÃ¢â¬â¢s natural interests. Ã¢â¬ (Greenspan) in doing so they are able to Ã¢â¬Å"get a picture of what she finds enjoyable, what motivates her. (Greenspan) and is considered as the best method for supporting the language and social communication development of the child with autism. Speech therapy is one of the most important pieces of the team approach to help children with Autism develop social and communication skills. The goal of speech therapy in working with children with autism is to help the child communicate her needs and wants. A specific therapy program is individualized for each child. There are as many programs as there are children. There are a wide range of therapies that facilitate language development in children with Autism. Normally language and play go off one another when both are impaired; they are likely to mutually inhibit the development of the other. Ã¢â¬ (Siegel) While there are other therapies, play therapy is considered one of the most effective ways to understand nonverbal communication in autism. Children with Autism can benefit from play therapy. The therapy is based on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s own interests. Children with autism do not play with toys in a functional way. Ã¢â¬Å"One thing that is often different about the sensory development of autistic children is its repetitiveness. This is also referred to as perseveration. Instead of pulling a string or handle on a Ã¢â¬Å"speak and sayÃ¢â¬ five or six times, the autistic of PDD child may engage in such an activity for 20 minutes without stopping. Ã¢â¬ (Siegle) Play therapy teaches the child to play with toys in ways that use imagination and are symbolic. And since imagination is obscured in autistic minds this is very important. Even though it may not be clear in a young child it can be observed in some situations such as a Ã¢â¬Å"Two year old autistic children (who) Ã¢â¬Ëplay telephoneÃ¢â¬â¢. They pick up the receiver and punch the buttons on the toy phone. Then they put the receiver down, less often will you see the autistic two year yammering, as if talking to someone. What is really never seen in the successive Ã¢â¬ËcallsÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬â say to grandma, big bird, or the family dog. That type of elaboration on a toy thing is beyond the slope of imagination of most autistic children instead, the physical actions copied strictly from what has been observed in the past is playlalia. Ã¢â¬ (Siegle) Play and speech therapy, paired with pictures is one of the ways that speech therapists and parents encourage language. Often the child with Autism uses a picture to exchange for a desired item this is called PECS. This picture exchange system is important and can be used after observing and playing with the child to determine what toys the child is interested in. It is used as a stepping stone for communication with the outside world. The picture exchange system is a way for children with Autism to communicate using pictures. This is a good way for them to make their needs and wants met. Many children with autism have tantrums or do not want to cooperate with their teacher or parents. The best way to find out what a child with autism wants is to use this simple system. Since many people on the autism spectrum tend to learn visually, it makes good sense to communicate with images. Just as important, images are a universal means of communication Ã¢â¬â and they are just as understandable by strangers or young peers by parents or therapists. Ã¢â¬ (Rudy) When the parent knows what the child wants, they can use the picture of the desired item as a reinforcer to help the child cooperate with the parents directions. Sometimes the parent will offer the child two pictures as choices. Other times the parent can use the picture of an activity that needs to be accomplished and a picture of a desired item. Then the parent can say, first wash hands and then you can have bubbles. The child learns this routine and is able to communicate, and follow the parentÃ¢â¬â¢s directions. There is a more complex style of picture exchange system where the speech therapist starts with one item paired with an object. The speech therapist then asks the child Ã¢â¬Å"want cookieÃ¢â¬ , showing the child a picture of a cookie and the cookie. When the child understands that the picture represents the cookie then the child is ready to use the pictures for other choices. Later the child is using pictures to help form sentences. There are many ways that speech therapists use pictures to encourage language. Often the speech therapist works with the behaviorist to develop a system that will provide reinforcers for the child. These reinforcers help the child to stay motivated during therapy. The behavioral therapy or Discrete Trials therapy is often used along with speech therapy. Ã¢â¬Å"Discrete trial training is conducted using intensive drills of selected materials. A specific behavior is prompted or guided, and children receive reinforcement for proper responses. Ã¢â¬ (What is Discrete Trial Training? This is a program that teaches a child with autism specific information in small units which are less distracting for the child. Because children with autism are so distractible or may want to obsess on spinning or other behaviors, the discrete trial helps them to focus on learning vocabulary, names of animals, math and pre reading skills. The occupational therapist is also important to the treatment of children with Autism. This therapist often uses sensory integration techniques to help the child with Autism develop self regulation. Many of the children with autism have self stimulatory behaviors with are sometimes their way to regulate, their senses. These self stimulatory behaviors may not be as effective as the specific movement, vestibular, or deep pressure, proprioceptive, or sensory, touch and brushing that the occupational therapist uses. The parents of the child with autism are invited to observe what the therapist recommends, and then they can use many of the recommendations at home to help calm their child. Many children with autism are sensitive to loud noises, and are sometimes very sensitive to tags in the back of their shirts, or the seams on their socks. The book, Ã¢â¬Å"The Out of Sync ChildÃ¢â¬ by Carol Stock Kranowitz, has many suggestions for children who are sensitive to noise, light, and touch. The research is clear that the first step is early intervention using a team approach early diagnosis and treatment specific to the individual child is the most helpful thing you can do. Although it takes patience and understanding (with the trial and error); with the numerous treatments available every child can be helped. The diagnosis is the first step, and when treatment is started early, the team approach is the beginning of optimal treatment for the child. How to cite Autism a Communication and Social Disorder, Essay examples
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Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about theDynamics of Place Branding. Answer: Introduction In the contemporary world, the national identity of goods and services is a valuable asset. The identity of a countrys trading items should be strong, real, and communicable. Nation branding is a product of globalization because countries strive to compete with each other depending on their resources. Countries focus on developing strong and positive brands that introduce their competencies to the entire world (Wang 2006). The nation brand includes perceptions regarding six competencies namely people, culture, tourism, investment, governance, and exports. The influences of international media, history, ignorance, and globalization make it hard for a country to change a negative stereotype. Therefore, the brand image of a nation rarely reflects the reality. While it is hard to change the international reputation of a country, governments can utilize strategic planning and engagement of place stakeholders to achieve competitive advantage. Economic, environmental, and financial challenges affect the capacity of countries to attract foreign investment as well as establish a competitive advantage (Porter 2011). Nation branding is a constituent of place branding that seeks solutions to the factors that slow down economic development among nations. The existence of such challenges is an indicator that the traditional planning instruments become irrelevant with time. Therefore, policy developers need to develop new policies that cope with the current challenges effectively. According to Oliveira (2015), place planning promotes social inclusion, economic restructuring, and place identification. The researcher states that place planning contributes to the development of social and economic structures in a country. Finally, the technique reveals the need for restructuring the current system in response to contemporary economic challenges. Incidentally, the human capital is important in developing a nations reputation. People create perceptions about a country through contact and engagement (White White 2007). Therefore, countries concentrate on developing talent that attracts international reputation. Citizens participate in branding by sharing their ideas and innovations that promote economic development (Volcic Andrejevic 2011). Additionally, people should participate in different government programs to create positive perceptions. A national brand gives the citizens a sense of belonging and an appreciation of identity. A reputable nation brand inspires citizens to engage in sustainable economic practices. Branding is an innovative process of sharing relevant information with the customers. The consumers require information on identity, image, purpose, and equity (Aaker 2012). Place branding is an emerging concept that aims at attracting businesses to new locations. Place branding involves management of reputation to attract immigration and foreign investment. It includes the interactions of a place with its environment. Such environments include trade, politics, and investment. The concept of place branding establishes a relationship and engagement between the consumers and the brand. The brand interacts with consumers through different experiences. Furthermore, people develop perceptions of a place through three areas of contact (White White 2007). The encounters are important because they enable an individual to form an opinion about a place of interest. Firstly, the frequency with which a person uses a place helps them to develop particular perceptions. Secondly, the representation of specific places in the news, paintings, and films gives an individual an impression of a place. Finally, the impact of deliberate policies utilized in particular areas attracts interest from investors. Therefore, policy makers can influence the perception of people by facilitating initiatives that represent localities positively. The planning involves three key tools namely personality association, signature building, design and event hallmarking. Personality association involves the tendency of identifying a place using an eminent person (Ashworth 2009). The distinguished individual plays an ambassadorial role while interacting with other communities in the country, region, and world. The administrators in places like cities and countries associate themselves with prominent people with the hope of establishing a unique identity. Such planners hope to transfer the qualities of the prominent person through associating with the individual. Additionally, cities associate distinguished architects and utilize their designs to develop unique identities. Establish a special link between the person and place is necessary. People with distinguished achievements through their work are preferred for place branding. Finally, the policymakers must create mechanisms of fighting off the competing qualities of persons from competitor places. Conversely, personality associations might result in undesirable results. In this case, the characters with unattractive achievements cannot be utilized for personality associations. The continuous evolution of productions through utilization of innovative techniques challenges the effectiveness of personality associations over time (Ashworth 2009). Additionally, the demise of an eminent person utilized in personality associations can harm the prospects of economic growth in an area. The death of a famous person with personality associations with a place might affect the perceptions of people negatively. The death of Chester Weinberg, a popular fashion designer, shocked the close-knit community. Initially, the designer enjoyed fame but his death went unremarked in public. In this case, the distinguished fashion designer had succumbed to AIDS-related complications. Such unfortunate situations indicate that policy developers should use personality associations cautiously. The signature building is a useful tool in place branding because the structures represent outstanding physical and aesthetic values for a particular place (Ashworth 2009). It aims at introducing a place to residents and nonresidents in terms of history and culture. It indicates to people that the place is important for protection and re-creation of historic forms or demonstration and consumption of cultural experiences. Such structures represent cities as units extending beyond the immediate neighborhood. The signature building is a useful technique of representing the identity of a place especially for cities created for functions other than cultural heritage and historical significance. For example, the museumufer in Frankfurt is a financial center but demonstrates the peoples way of life. Additionally, event hallmarking is important because it combines the content of activities with the organization process. In this case, the strategy demonstrates a citys capacity to host an event as well as its association with the occasion. Event hallmarking introduces the public to a citys qualities in organization and commitment to successful performance (Ashworth 2009). Cultural events are widely acceptable because the products add value and unique brand qualities to a place. Other events include political rallies, commercial fairs, sporting activities, and international meetings. Primarily, the impact of event branding depends on the perceptions of consumers after the occasion. The main cities that host cultural events register the largest economic benefits. Interestingly, the prospect of hosting world events can trigger changes in the existing structures of host cities. For example, hosting the Olympics in a developing nation requires the construction of stadia. In this case, i t is the event that informed the decision of restructuring cities. Place branding takes place in the presence of many stakeholders who can either provide support for the proposed brand or interrupt the entire process of formulation and adoption. Klijn, Eshuis, and Braun (2012) indicate that the participation of stakeholders in place branding affects the efficacy of the process in the public sector. Other factors that influence the success of place branding include marketing activities, brand image, and participation of consumers. The customers participate in the creation and sustenance of initiative (Klijn et al. 2012). It is a continuous process that requires stakeholders and consumers to participate in brand creation, recreation, and implementation. Therefore, the different characters determine the success rate of place branding. The stakeholders contribute resources; they reduce possibilities of misuse of power, provide details of decision making, and participate in the democratic process of governance. Subsequently, the creation and management of successful partnerships involve the interaction of different success factors (Hankinson 2009). The diversity of stakeholders involved in place branding contributes to the complexity of developing successful partnerships. The process requires commitment and involvement of all participants. Successful brands represent and integrate the principal stakeholders and maintain consistency over extended periods (Anantachart 2006). In this case, it is important to achieve reasonable levels of integration in place branding. Therefore, it is relevant to identify the right people to establish the place branding partnerships. For instance, the partners should have shared goals for the initiative. The reputation of a place plays a crucial role in securing sufficient funding for place branding (Van Ham 2008). The occurrence of disasters can limit opportunities for investment because of stakeholders perceived risks. Community disasters that receive local and international media attention may affect the desire for companies seeking relocation (Avraham Ketter 2008). However, in the presence of proper mitigating strategies, the impact of such challenges remains minimal. It is necessary for the community to provide sufficient information regarding the situation. Additionally, effective communication with the affected parties demonstrates responsibility and capacity to manage disasters. In conclusion, globalization and international competition demand strategic realignments in governments. The traditional techniques for promoting economic development become inefficient in the current global economic state. It is important to acknowledge that globalization increases opportunities for companies and markets within regions and the world. However, national governments should adopt strategies that ensure sustained economic development. It is important to utilize national resources appropriately to minimize losses and wastage. Successful partnerships encourage effective communication, collaboration, and consistency. Communication is a fundamental component in securing enough funding for place branding. Countries should evaluate the different place branding techniques to identify the most appropriate for their development endeavors. References Aaker, D.A., 2012. Building strong brands. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. Anantachart, S., 2006. Integrated marketing communications and market planning: Their implications for brand equity building. Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 11, No.1, pp.101-125. Ashworth, G., 2009. The instruments of place branding: How is it done?. European Spatial research and policy, Vol. 16, No.1, pp.9-22. Avraham, E., and Ketter, E., 2008. Media strategies for marketing places in crisis: Improving the Image of cities, countries, and tourist destinations. London, UK: Routledge. Hankinson, G., 2009. Managing destination brands: establishing a theoretical foundation. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 25, No.(1-2), pp.97-115. Klijn, E.H., Eshuis, J. and Braun, E., 2012. The influence of stakeholder involvement on the effectiveness of place branding. Public management review, Vol. 14, No.4, pp.499-519. Oliveira, E., 2015. Place branding as a strategic spatial planning instrument. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Vol. 11, No.1, pp.18-33. Porter, M.E., 2011. The competitive advantage of nations: creating and sustaining superior performance. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster. Van Ham, P., 2008. Place branding: The state of the art. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, No.1, pp.126-149. Volcic, Z. and Andrejevic, M., 2011. Nation branding in the era of commercial nationalism. International Journal of Communication, Vol, 5, pp.21. Wang, J., 2006. Managing national reputation and international relations in the global era: Public diplomacy revisited. Public Relations Review, Vol. 32, No.2, pp.91-96. White, N.R. and White, P.B., 2007. Home and away: Tourists in a connected world. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 34, No.1, pp.88-104.
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